Timeline of Events
Literary Works of The Post Reformation



Literary Works From This Period

The post reformation period runs, beginning from the 1600’s to the current century. During this time period reformed Christianity has well been established and many great men have carried its mantle such as King James, Charles Wesley, and William Carey. The Reformation has led to many corrections in Biblical theology, a steadier foundation of the Christian faith and many great revivals and awakenings. These periods have led to massive conversions and convictions to reveal to the public the God who created them and His plan for their lives.



The Puritans  (1600-1699) – Blaise Pascal, John Bunyan, The Westminster Assembly, Richard Baxter and John Owen,

1603ad – Arminius takes the position that predestination is based on fore-knowledge

1603ad – James the First becomes King

1604ad – The Puritans meet James at Hampton Court. Their hopes are dashed

1609ad – Death of Jacobus Arminius

1610ad – Birth of Brother Lawrence

1610ad –  The Arminians issue the Remonstrance containing 5 articles

1611ad –  The King James Version, the most influential English translation of the Bible

1615ad – Birth of Puritan Richard Baxter, author of The Reformed Pastor

1616ad – Birth of Puritan John Owen, called the Calvin of England

1618ad –  The Book of Sports is published. It contradicts the Puritan view of the Sabbath, but Puritans are forced to read it

1618-1619ad –  The Synod of Dort is called in the Netherlands to answer the Arminians. The response forms 5 point Calvinism

1620ad –  Plymouth, Massachusetts colony founded by Puritans

1623ad –  b. Blaise Pascal

1623ad – Birth of Francis Turretin

1625ad – Charles I becomes King. He too is against the Puritans

1628ad – William Laud becomes Bishop of London and steps up oppression of the Puritans

1628ad – Birth of Puritan John Bunyan, author of Pilgrim’s Progress among many other works of poetry and prose

1629ad – Charles I dismisses Parliament

1630ad – John Winthrop and many Puritans migrate to America

1632ad – Birth of Locke, founder of empiricism

1633ad –  The Book of Sports is renewed

1636ad – Harvard founded by Puritans

1638ad – The National Covenant

1640ad – Charles I summons Parliament. They curtail his power

1643ad – The Solemn League and Covenant

1643-1646ad – The Westminster Assembly

1646ad – Cromwell’s army defeats the King at the Battle of Naseby

1647ad – George Fox founds the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)

1649ad – Charles I is executed. Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector. c. 1650’s Brother Lawrence became a monk, and “walk(ed) with God around a kitchen for forty years” (Great Christian Books, 57) But he did it to glorify God

1654ad – Conversion of Pascal. He started collecting notes for an Apology for the Christian Religion. It was unfinished, but his notes were published posthumously as Pensees

1658ad – Death of Cromwell

1660ad – Charles II becomes King of England

1661-1663ad – John Eliot publishes the Bible in Algonkian, a Native American language. Over the course of his life he also helped plant at least 14 Native American churches

1662ad – Death of Pascal

1662ad – New Act of Uniformity, over two thousand Puritan pastors resign or are forced out

1675ad – Philip Jacob Spener’s Pia Desideria helps begin the pietist movement. Edict of Nantes is revoked, making Protestantism illegal again in France. Many huguenots emigrated, some stayed and met in secret

1685ad – Birht of J.S.Bach, called the fifth evangelist

1687ad – Death of Turretin. His Institutes of Elentic Theology were published the next year

1688ad –  William and Mary take the throne. Puritans are free to preach and establish their own churches

1691ad – Death of Brother Lawrence


The Great Awakening (1700-1799) – Moravians, Methodists, William Wilberforce, Charles Hodge, Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield

1703 b. Jonathan Edwards

1706 Francis Makemie founds the first Presbytery in America in Philadelphia

1714 b. Immanuel Kant, a leader of the Romantic movement. He said knowledge is not what is, but only what our minds can grasp

1714 b. George Whitefield

1727 “The Golden Summer.” A revival broke out among Count Nikolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf and the Hussite Moravian refugees he had taken in. Many Moravian missionaries were sent overseas

During the 1720’s, revival breaks out as Theodore Frelinghuysen preaches in New Jersey. Revival spreads through Gilbert Tennant to New Brunswick. It is the first stirrings of the First Great Awakening

1734-1737 The Great Awakening continues as Jonathan Edwards preaches in Massachusettes. Revival spreads to Connecticut

1739-41 George Whitefield joins Edwards. He traveled diligently, traveling between England and America 13 times, and was able to reach about 80% of the colonists with the gospel

1739 The Methodists begin as a parachurch society in London

1741 The conservative Old Side/ pro-revival New Side controversy in American Presbyterianism

1746 Princeton founded by the Presbyterians

1754 Dartmouth founded for Native Americans

1758 Old Side/New Side schism healed

1759 b. Charles Simeon, founder of low-church party of Church of England

1759 b. William Wilberforce, an evangelical in the Church of England, who fought against slavery

1761 b. William Carey

1764 Brown founded by Baptists

1766 Rutgers founded by Dutch Reformed. All these new colleges were fruit of the Great Awakening

1768 Lady Huntingdon, who brought Methodism to the upper classes and founded “The Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion”, opened Trevecca House as a Methodist Seminary

1770 d. Whitefield.

1772 b. Archibald Alexander, who would organize Princeton Theological Seminary

c.1773-1775 Founded, the first black Baptist church in America, Silver Bluff, South Carolina

1779 Olney Hymns produced by John Newton and William Cowper. It includes “How Sweet the Name of Jesus Sounds” and “Amazing Grace”

1783 b. Asahel Nettleton

1784 John Wesley baptizes Thomas Coke, making Methodism a denomination separate from the Church of England

1787 Archibald Alexander at Hampton Sydney College. May be considered the first early stirrings of the Second Great Awakening

1791 d. Lady Huntingdon

1792 William Carey preaches “Expect great things from God. Attempt great things for God.”

1792 Particular Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen founded, later called the Baptist Missionary Society

1792 b. Charles Finney, inventor of modern revivalism

1795 London Missionary Society founded

1797 b. Charles Hodge

1799 Church Missionary Society founded

1799 Friedrich Schleiermacher’s On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers presented Christianity in a Romantic, subjective light. Precursor to Liberalism


The Second Great Awakening (1800-1899) -D.L. Moody, John Henry Newman, B.B.Warfield, C.H.Spurgeon, Princeton Seminary and Abraham Kuyper

1800 The first camp meeting in Kentucky is presided over by Calvinist James McGready

1801 William Carey’s Bengali New Testament published

1801 The Cane Ridge Revival in Kentucky is an early stirring of the Second Great Awakening

1808 Henry Martyn publishes the New Testament in Hindustani

1809 Harvard having been lost to Unitarianism, Andover Seminary is founded

1812 Princeton Seminary founded

1812 b. James Henley Thornwell, the great Southern Presbyterian mind whose influence is still felt in the PCA

1813 b. David Livingston, missionary and explorer in Africa

1813 b. Soren Kierkegaard. African Methodist Episcopal Church founded in 1816 by Richard Allen, a freedman who had been the first black Methodist to be ordained as a deacon

1824 Charles Finney leads revivals from Wilmingham to Boston. The Second Great Awakening is underway

1825 Charles Hodge founds the Princeton Review

1834 d. William Carey, called “the Father of Modern Missions”

1834 b. C.H.Spurgeon

1835 Hodge’s Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans

1835 Finney’s Lectures on Revivals. The Southern Harmony, and Musical Companion by William Walker

1833-1841 The Oxford Movement, or the Tractarian Movement, attempts to bring the Church of England closer to Catholicism. Tried to popularize the Via Media. Led by John Henry Newman

1835-1837 Adoniram Judson translates the Bible into Burmese

1837 b. Abraham Kuyper

1837 b. D.L. Moody

1837 Old School/New School controversy splits American Presbyterianism

1843 The Disruption of the church in Scotland

1844 d. Asahel Nettleton, Calvinist leader who opposed Finney’s formulaic view of revivalism during the Second Great Awakening

1845 John Henry Newman converts to Roman Catholicism

1848 b. Mary Slessor, who the Africans she would minister to called “The Mother of All of Life”

1851 d. Archibald Alexander

1851 b. B.B.Warfield, Princeton theologian who would defend inerrancy

1852 b. Adolf Schlatter, a respected conservative voice in liberal Germany

1854 Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary

1855 d. Kierkegaard

1857 Finney’s Lectures to Professing Christians written to influence the practice of “Christian Perfection.”  Origen of Species, 1859, Darwin

1860 Essays and Reviews published. A liberal manifesto by 7 Church of England priests

1861 Spurgeon moves to the Metropolitan Tabernacle. Soon he is preaching to over 6,000 per week

1864 Old School/New School schism healed in the South

1869 Old School/New School schism healed in the North

1870 Vatican I, and the declaration of Papal Infallibility when speaking ex cathedra

1870 Fifty year celebration of Friedrich August Tholuck’s professorship at Halle. Tholuck was the spiritual father of thousands of students, and mentored Charles Hodge

1873 d. David Livingston

1875 d. Charles Finney

1874 The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation by Albrecht Ritschl reduces Christianity to a social gospel

1878 d. Charles Hodge

1879 John Henry Newman made a Cardinal

1881 b. J.Gresham Machen

1886 Abraham Kuyper leads a major sucession in the Dutch Reformed Church

1886 The Student Volunteer Movement

1886 b. Karl Barth

1890 d. John Henry Newman, who became one of the most influential Roman Catholic thinkers of his time

1892 d. C.H.Spurgeon

1898 Kuyper’s Lectures on Calvinism at Princeton’s Stone Lectures urge the development of a Christian worldview encompassing all of life

1899 d. D.L. Moody


The Modern Period (1900-Present) – G.K. Chesterton, C.S. Lewis, Francis Schaeffer, B.B.Warfield and Dietrich Bonhoeffer

1900 What is Christianity by Adolf Harnack reduces Christianity to the personality of Jesus in the synoptics, without any supernatural elements

1905 d. George MacDonald, Christian novelist and Poet

1906 Azusa St. Revival, a major catalyst to the Pentecostal and Charismatic churches

1921 d. B.B.Warfield

1922 “Shall the Fundamentalists Win?” sermon by Harry Emerson Fosdick

1922 “Shall Unbelief Win?” sermon by Clarence Edward Macartney

1923 Christianity and Liberalism by J. Gresham Machen

1925 Scope’s Monkey Trial brings national attention to Fundamentalism

1929 Machen and others found Westminster Seminary after Princeton is lost to the liberals

1934 Conversion of Billy Graham

1936 d. G.K. Chesterton

1941-43 Rienhold Niebuhr’s The Nature and Destiny of Man

1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer hanged by the Nazis

1945 d. Charles Williams, who wrote Christian metaphysical thriller fantasy novels and hung out with C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien

1950 Doctrine of the Assumption of Mary

1950 The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, the first of The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis

1951 Richard Niebuhr’s Christ and Culture

1955 L’Abri Fellowship founded by Francis Schaeffer

1962-1965 Vatican II

1963 d. C.S.Lewis

1968 d. Karl Barth

1968 Liberation Theology comes to prominence in the second Conference of Latin American Bishops

1968 The God Who is There by Francis Schaeffer

1973 Mission to the World of the Presbyterian Church in America

1999 The twentieth century had more Christian martyrs than all the other centuries combined. Find out more from The Voice of the Martyrs