World Religions – Abrahamic Religions – Islam & Muslims
Table of Contents
What is the difference between Muslim and Islam? Islam is the religion, and the followers of the religion are Muslims. It is the same as saying Christians believe in Christianity; Christians are the people that believe in Christianity the religion.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, the Arab people lived primarily within the Arabian plate (one of 3 tectonic crustal plates between the African and Indian plates) aka the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabic tribe of Quraysh whom ‘the coming prophet’ Mohammad belonged to , where the guardians of the Kaaba in the town of Mecca. The Kaaba was an important pagan shrine, as all of the people believed and followed pagan worship.
In 610 A.D the beginning of the holy book, the Quran, was written as Mohammad proclaimed his visions. Times of war and settlements continued throughout the region, and the Qur’an began to be written by the Sahabah (disciples of Mohammad) during Mohammad’s lifetime. Muslims began to spread Islam and eventually conquered Mecca in 630a.d. Followed by Mohammad’s death in 632 a.d.
Islam is a verbal noun from the trilateral room s-l-m which comes form an original meaning of “wholeness, or completion.” In religious context it means “to submit to God.”
Islam split into 6 basic sub-denominations:
- Sunni 75-90% of Muslims
- Shia 10-20% of Muslims
- Sufism >1% of Muslims
- Ibadi >1% of Muslims
- Ahmadiyya >1% of Muslims
- Quraniyoon >1% of Muslims
Mohammad Ibn Abdullah – The Prophet
Mohammad is believed by Muslims to be the last true prophet of God through whom God revealed the Quran. He was born in April 570 in Mecca in whats is known today as Saudi Arabia and died June 632 a.d. of illness. According to Muslims, Mohammad was the last prophet in a series of prophets starting with Adam. The Quran was revealed to Mohammad through the angel Gabriel. After Mohammad came an infallible line of spiritual leaders and politicians starting with Mohammads cousin and son-in-law Ali.
Muslims proclaim that the word used in their language for God is ‘Allah’. They believe the root word is derived from the original Hebrew word El, or Elohim which in Arabic translated into Al’ llah or Allah.
Historically, the word Allah certainly predates Islam, and is found along with its feminine form Allat all throughout inscriptions in North Arabia referring to the gods and goddesses of the pre-Islamic pagan polytheistic worship. Some scholars believe and have traced the original name of ‘llah’ from the Southern Arabian’s title for the moon god. Combine with the word for the supreme God, al; al-llah became the used conjunction for the god of Islam.
This is disputed by various Muslim Islamic scholars and some western scholars. Scholars do agree that in ancient Arabic, the pagans of pre-Islamic traditions considered Allah the creator and rain-giver. As in Meccan religions, Allah was associated with companions whom where sub-ordinate deities and had kinship with the Jinn. Allah was though of to have had sons and daughters in these Arabic pre-Islamic pagan belief system. The Quran (Islamic holy book) has this to say about the Islamic belief of Allah:
There is one supreme god (Sura 3.191, 5.73, 112.1-4)
According to Muslims, God did not have a son, and to believe so is blasphemy. Jesus was only a prophet.
The Quran (also pronounced Koran) is holy book of Islam, Muslims regard the Quran as the actual words of Allah, and not the words of Mohammad to whom it was given. The Quran is divided into 114 chapters called Surahs, literally meaning “row”. It is believed by Muslims to have been given by the angel Gabriel whom visited Mohammad and gave the words directly to him. The Quran was revealed in Arabic dialect used by the Quraish tribe of Mecca at the time. Muslims believe the Quran is in its original form, as the incorruptible word of God, and has not been changed at all since its passing to Mohammad.
The primary message it contains is how Allah desires for mankind to live, act and believe. It is how to submit to the will of Allah.
Mohammad could not read or write, so his companions wrote down everything he said on a variety of materials: papyrus, stone, wood, animal skins & bones, etc. and these saying would be memorized by Mohammad’s followers. The book is roughly the same size as the entire New Testament of the Bible. Muslims proclaim the Quran is easy to understand and remembered (Sura 54.17, 22, 32, 40) yet many Muslim now claim that it cannot be understood without the Hadiths
Are said to be the oral traditions, approvals and writing of Mohammad himself.
Muslims made Mecca into the holy place of Islam. Before it was sanctified under Islam, Mecca was the center for pagan religious worship with the Ka’aba as the center.
The Ka’aba (also pronounced Kaabah) was a cube shrine 60 ft x 60 ft x 60 ft and contained hundreds of idols before Mohammad destroyed the polytheistic beliefs. One of the idols it contained was a statue of the god Hubal which was believed to have powers of divination (fortune telling). Hubal was the lunar deity.
It is known that before Mohammad destroyed all the other deities in the Ka’aba, and before Islam was ever introduced, this place was a center for pagan worship along with the deity Allah. The Ka’aba is taught by Muslims to have been built by Abraham of the Bible who built it over the first shrine of Adam, this first shrine was supposedly built by Adam after God created him.
Scholars such as Sergio Noja, and Julius Wellhausen and even orientalists such as David Margoliouth have all believed that there was or may have been a connection between Hubal and Allah. Other professors have found aspects of Allah worship associated with the pagan beliefs centered on the black stone in the Kaabah. The Kaabah was the house of the black stone long before the rise of Islam which was revered as a sacred stone and a site for pilgrims.
Salvation – Judgment – Heaven & Hell
Muslims believe the only way to obtain salvation from Allah, and therefore enter into paradise after you die is by performing good deeds and works.
God hates sinners – Sura 7.53
Those whose good deeds outweigh their bad will obtain paradise (3.135, 7.8-9, 21.47)
Paradise has voluptuous virgin women for sensual gratification (Sura 55.56, 56.35-38, 78.31-33)
Non-Muslim & Morally bad People go to Hell
Those whose Good deeds outweigh their bad will go to paradise with sensual pleasures. The bad people whose evil deeds outweigh their good deeds, will go to hell.
Those who are not Muslim will go to hell (2.24, 3.12)
No Guarantee of Salvation for Anyone
The Quran says that if your good deeds outweigh your bad, you believe in Allah, and repent you might go to heaven (Sura 3.135, 7.8-9, 21.47, 49.14, 66.8-9)
There is no last minute repentance (Sura 4.18)
The Holy Spirit is the angel Gabriel (Sura 2.97, 16.102)
There will be an end of the world and judgment (Sura 35.33-37)
Husbands can beat their wives (Sura 4:34)
Criticism & Apologetics
Quran vs the Bible
There are many discrepancies between the Quran and the Bible. The Quran refers to Christians and Jews as the people of ‘The Book.’ Besides discrepancies and contradictions in the Quran. The Quran also teaches Muslims to believe the Bible, and that Christians do worship the same God and are going to heaven.
What Muslim Believe About the Bible
Muslims believe in the Torah (torat or first 5 books of the bible) and that Moses wrote them and was a prophet.
They believe in the writings of David, the psalms (zabur).
They also believe in the teachings of Jesus Christ and the Gospel (Injil).
Muslims will attempt to say that the Bible has been changed by men so much it is no longer reliable.
Muslim, Jews, and Christians shall all be Rewarded from Allah
The Quran says that all Muslims, Christians, Jews and Sabians will be rewarded by Allah, and go to heaven when they die.
Those who believe (in the Qur’an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. – Sura 2.62
Quran Says the Bible is True
The Quran says the Bible is true. Muslim claim that the bible has been changed by men, but their Quran literally taken says that Allah’s word cannot change, and therefore the bible is true;
It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the Book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this, as a guide to mankind, and He sent down the criterion (of judgment between right and wrong). – Sura 3.2-3
163. We have sent thee inspiration, as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him: we sent inspiration to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms. 164. Of some apostles We have already told thee the story; of others We have not;- and to Moses Allah spoke direct; – Sura 4.163-164
46. And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.
47. Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel.
48. To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the Truth that hath come to thee. To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah. it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute;
49. And this (He commands): Judge thou between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile thee from any of that (teaching) which Allah hath sent down to thee. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their crime it is Allah.s purpose to punish them. And truly most men are rebellious. – Sura 5.46-49
Nothing Can Change Allah’s word
The Quran says that nothing can change the word of Allah. Muslims will say this simply means that what Allah has spoken cannot be changed, but the literal interpretation of the Quran will seem to imply something else.
Rejected were the apostles before thee: with patience and constancy they bore their rejection and their wrongs, until Our aid did reach them: there is none that can alter the words (and decrees) of Allah. Already hast thou received some account of those apostles. – Sura 6.34
There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end. – Sura 6.38
The word of thy Lord doth find its fulfillment in truth and in justice: None can change His words: for He is the one who heareth and knoweth all. – Sura 6.115
For them are glad tidings, in the life of the present and in the Hereafter; no change can there be in the words of Allah. This is indeed the supreme felicity. – Sura 10.64
Muslims must acknowledge the Bible as truth – Same God (Allah)
Recite what is sent of the Book by inspiration to thee, and establish regular Prayer: for Prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds; and remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life) without doubt. And Allah knows the (deeds) that ye do. – Sura 29.45
And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury): but say, “We believe in the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our Allah and your Allah is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam).” – Sura 29.46
The Quran claims that you can use the Bible to test its accuracy:
Mohammad would instruct Christians “look at your Bible; it will confirm what I am telling you.” We have the same bible to this day; why would he point to a book that he believes has been corrupted by men to approve his own book?
Sura 10:94- .” “If you have any doubt regarding what is revealed to you from your Lord, then ask those who read the previous scripture”
Catholic View/ Jesus was just an apostle
Mohammad had a very poor understanding of Christian doctrine and biblical teachings; he was primarily only exposed to Catholicism and the Catholic monk. The Quran reflects a lot of this misunderstanding and an unbiblical catholic interpretation, such as Mary the mother of Jesus, saying that she was a god or deified.
This is another proof the Quran was written by someone that learned Christianity based from catholic monks, rather than real biblical doctrines
Mohammed mistakenly believed Christians worshipped 3 gods: the Father, Jesus and Mary. This is a non-biblical, catholic view, never a part of any Christian doctrine. Mary was always just simply another follower and servant of God, equal to everyone else who believes in Jesus, just as the Bible taught.
O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of Allah, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His apostles. Say not “Trinity” : desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is one Allah: Glory be to Him: (far exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs. – Sura 4.17
In blasphemy indeed are those that say that Allah is Christ the son of Mary. Say: “Who then hath the least power against Allah, if His will were to destroy Christ the son of Mary, his mother, and all every – one that is on the earth? For to Allah belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between. He createth what He pleaseth. For Allah hath power over all things.” – Sura 5.17
Christ the son of Mary was no more than an apostle; many were the apostles that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how Allah doth make His signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth! – Sura 5.75
and behold! Allah will say: “O Jesus the son of Mary! Didst thou say unto men, worship me and my mother as gods in derogation of Allah.?” He will say: “Glory to Thee! never could I say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, thou wouldst indeed have known it. Thou knowest what is in my heart, Thou I know not what is in Thine. For Thou knowest in full all that is hidden. – Sura 5.116
God Had no Son
Muslims in these verses portray a false understand that God would need a wife or ‘consort’ in order to produce and offspring or son. They once again do not have any understanding of God or biblical doctrines that God is not like a man, that he needs to have sex to produce offspring.
Say: “Praise be to Allah, who begets no son, and has no partner in (His) dominion: Nor (needs) He any to protect Him from humiliation: yea, magnify Him for His greatness and glory!” – Sura 17.111
No son did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him: (if there were many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have lorded it over others! Glory to Allah! (He is free) from the (sort of) things they attribute to Him! – Sura 23.93
Yet they make the Jinns equals with Allah, though Allah did create the Jinns; and they falsely, having no knowledge, attribute to Him sons and daughters. Praise and glory be to Him! (for He is) above what they attribute to Him!
To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: How can He have a son when He hath no consort? He created all things, and He hath full knowledge of all things. – Sura 6.100-101
‘And Exalted is the Majesty of our Lord: He has taken neither a wife nor a son. – Sura 72.3
Jesus Didn’t Die on a Cross
Against historic accuracy, Muslim claim that Jesus Christ didn’t die on a cross;
That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Apostle of Allah”;- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not: – Sura 4.157-159
CONTRADICTIONS IN THE QURAN
Was man created from blood, clay, dust or nothing?
- 96.2- clots of congealed blood
- 15.26- from clay
- 3.59- from the dust
- 19.67- created from nothing
Does Allah forgive false idol worship or not?
- 4.48; 4.166- Allah does not forgive that false idols are setup with him
- 4.153- God forgave them
Does Allah’s decrees change or not?
- 6.34- there is none that can alter (change) Allah’s words
- 6.115- none can change his words
- 2.106- our revelations, we substitute (changed) with something similar or better
- 16.101- when we substitute (change) one revelation for another
Was pharaoh killed by drowning or not
- 10.90-92- of Pharaoh… we saved you in body, that you may be a sign to those who come after you.
- 17.102-103- of Pharaoh… we did drown him and all who were with him.
Is wine consumption good or bad?
- 5.90- intoxicants are an abomination
- 47.15- the garden in paradise has rivers of wine, a joy to those who drink.
- 83.22-25- their thirst will be slaked with pure wine sealed.
Muslims, Jews, and Christians all worship the same God or Different
- 2.62; 2.139, 3.64 – Same
- 109.1-6 – Different
Contradiction: Creation of the World:
Quran says more than one person involved in Creation, But in other places says he acted alone!
Sura 50.38- “We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six days.”
(Reflects the bible, but contradicts their own Quran’s teaching)
How many days did Allah take to make the earth?
- sura 7.52 – 6 Days to create
- sura 41.3-11 – 8 Days to create
Contradiction: Who were the first Muslims, or first to believe?
According to the Quran, Abraham and Ismael where the founders of Islam asking God to make them Muslims. What is interesting is at the times when God called Abraham (roughly 2500 b.c.) , the terms Jew or Islam did not even exist, let along the term Muslims. God called Abraham to be a believer, it was over time after Moses that the term Jew even came about and the people where known as Hebrews. Islamic religion which is purely Arabic in nature did not exist until after Mohammad was born after 600 a.d. over 3000 years later!
(Abrahams Prayer according to the Quran – roughly 2500 b.c.) “Our Lord! make of us Muslims, bowing to Thy (Will), and of our progeny a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (will); and show us our place for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful. – Sura 2.128
And this was the legacy that Abraham left to his sons, and so did Jacob; “Oh my sons! Allah hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of Islam – Sura 2.132
Noah and Moses weren’t Muslims, Noah was a gentile (but believer in God) and Moses was a Hebrew (Descendant of Israel), but the Quran says they were Muslims, the Quran conflicts who were the first to believe:
(Noah said; – roughly 4000b.c.) “But if ye turn back, (consider): no reward have I asked of you: my reward is only due from Allah, and I have been commanded to be of those who submit to Allah’s will (in Islam).” – Sura 10.74
(Moses; – roughly 2000 b.c.) When Moses came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He said: “O my Lord! show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.” Allah said: “By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shalt thou see Me.” When his Lord manifested His glory on the Mount, He made it as dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. When he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to Thee! to Thee I turn in repentance, and I am the first to believe.” – Sura 10.84
(Of Mohammad; – roughly 600 a.d.) Say: “Shall I take for my protector any other than Allah, the Maker of the heavens and the earth? And He it is that feedeth but is not fed.” Say: “Nay! but I am commanded to be the first of those who bow to Allah (in Islam), and be not thou of the company of those who join gods with Allah.” – Sura 6.14; 6.161-163
History shows that Mohammad had 12 wives; but according to the Quran you’re supposed to have no more than 4.
If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice. – Sura 4.3
Prophecy – No Prophecy in the Quran
All of the books of the bible where given in miracles and prophecy supporting and proving a supernatural origin (Isa 41.21-24- God challenges all false god to prophecy or perform a miracle to prove they are truly gods! It also challenges all false gods to tell the origins or the end of any event). The bible is the ‘inspired’ word of God given to different men throughout millennia of ages; through miracles that are recorded in multiple historic contexts and many confirmed in archaeology and prophecy always 100% accurate and direction to the people of God. The bible declares the beginning of the world all the way to the end of the world
The Quran has no such supernatural associations, and was inscribed in a completely different fashion. It is written completely in different terms and out of the context of the bible. If the Quran is to be accepted as the word of God then it should pass the same tests the God gave us throughout all His other books.
One Muslim said that “the god of the Quran doesn’t use prophecy to prove himself like the God of the Bible does.” This could not be more perfectly phrased, as only the One True God is able to know the beginning form the end, and proclaim prophecy- The God of the Bible!
Scientific Fallacies in the Quran
There are multiple scientific problems throughout the Quran. This also proves a human origin of the Quran, and that it is not divinely inspired.
Formation of the Sperm error
The Quran states that we are created from a drop (sperm) that forms between the backbone and ribs, but we know that the testicles which forms the sperm in puberty stages of the man’s life is below his abdomen. Even in development stages the testicle form in the embryo in the back of the abdomen cavity, never in the chest cavity where the ribs are located. This is a strong scientific contradiction.
“Now let man but think from what he is created! He is created from a drop emitted-Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs,” – Sura 86:5-7
Sun Sets in Mud
This was not a metaphorical verse; this is a verse literally describing a journey of Zul-qarnain. This presents a major problem as we know the sun doesn’t set in a pool of mud, but is rather in the center of our solar system.
Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky water: Near it he found a People: We said: “O Zul-qarnain! (thou hast authority,) either to punish them, or to treat them with kindness.” – Sura 18.86
Ants Can Talk
Once again another literal verse about the journeys of Solomon. Ants have no way to vocalize anything as they do not have any such communication appendages. This is a clear biological contradiction of anything could ever even happen.
At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: “O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it.” – Sura 27.18
7 Heavens & Earths
The Quran says that 7 heavens and 7 earths where created. There really is only 1 interpretation that could remotely fit what is written here and that is the assumption at the time when this was written, astronomers believed that the ‘heavens’ consisted of 7 planets. Made from ‘false’ astronomy claims of the time (actually just ignorance and lack of current technology), the planets Neptune and Uranus where not yet known, astronomy at the time believed the heavens had 7 bodies (starting from the closes going out): Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, (Sun), Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The 7 heavens refer to the believe that each of the bodies had its own sphere or ‘heaven.’
Allah is He Who created seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah comprehends, all things in (His) Knowledge. – Sura 65.12
Quran Codex (Original Book Copies)
There are actually 3 different incomplete codex of the Quran that exist after Mohammad’s death in 632 a.d:
- 1.) Hasfah Codex
- 2.) Adbullah Ibn Masud Codex
- 3.) Ubayy Ibn Ka’b Codex
All these codex translations where supposedly all from of the Quran that existed as Mohammad’s revelation from Allah.
One translation, the Ubayy, was completely attempted to be destroyed by Uthman one of Mohammad’s disciples. When Uthman became Caliph (head of the Islam religion) he appointed Zaid Ibn Thabit to reconstruct the Quran, this became knownw as the Zaid Codex. Today only the Zaid Codex exists.
The Ibn Kab and Ibn Masud Codex where also already in public use, they were burned and replaced with the Zaid codex.
Why where all the other codex’s burned? Isn’t all the words of Allah incorruptible, yet they desecrated it by burning it. This act makes Zaid to be the final man and deciding factor of what the Quran would say, as all other copies were burned. No committee was formed, no prophet was consulted, just one man, Zaid, was completely trusted by all Muslims to complete the work.
German expert Gerd R. Puin commented that the oldest Sanaa Quran dated to 705 a.d. proves that the Uthman Quran is not the original Quran.
Problems with Abraham, His Descendants & The Holy Land
The Muslims believed that Abraham gave his blessings to Ishmael not to Isaac, and that Abraham was the first Muslim. This blessing would be to include the land of Israel, and the city of Jerusalem.
Historic accounts from all Jewish and non-Jewish sources reveals that Abraham was the father of both Isaac and Ishmael, but blessed his son Isaac and banished Ishmael and his mother to the Arab regions. Eventually the Ishmaelite’s would mix with the children of Edom (the descendants of Esau, Isaacs’s son) to continue forming the Arab nations, evidence is provided for all these claims in history and archaeology.
All resources reveal that it was the Jewish nation (the Hebrew people) that had been resident in Jerusalem and the land originally given to Abraham by God until times far after the rise of Islam, the nation of Israel where always the primary inhabitance. The Arabs current location, throughout the Arabian Peninsula has always been the resident of the Arab peoples, their tribes and heritage. The Arab people never heavily established residence in the Jerusalem area within the nation of Israel, until after Jerusalem surrendered to the Muslims in 638 a.d, almost 2000 years after the Hebrews had dwelt and established the land, and before Israel took the land it belonged to the Canaanites and Hittites.
All Historic, Biblical, and archaeological evidence point to the descendant of Isaac and Israel being the inheritance of the holy land God promised to Abraham.
Moses was a descendant of Israel, and so where all the other prophets, they were Hebrews and Jews, not Muslims; which provides a huge contradiction to many of the passages in the Quran where it says they admitted to being ‘Muslims.’
Even the Quran confirms the Hebrew where the children of Israel:
We settled the Children of Israel in a beautiful dwelling-place, and provided for them sustenance of the best: it was after knowledge had been granted to them, that they fell into schisms. Verily Allah will judge between them as to the schisms amongst them, on the Day of Judgment. – Sura 10.93
The Islamic Dirham (Money)
Mohammad lived 570-632 and the Quran is said to be the unalterable word of God from Mohammad. Yet in Sura 12.20 it says that Joseph was sold for a certain number of Dirham.
The Dirham was a currency used by the Muslim (and Arab) communities, and is proposed by some scholars to have been an attempt to get back into the Persian and Byzantine coinage. This currency was not even created until 675-695 A.D.
This would show that the supposed unalterable Quran was actually written later by someone else as Mohammad would have no knowledge of it during his time. This we know to be true and more evidence the text was altered by Zaid, the ‘complier’ of the Quran who did his work long after Mohammad’s death.
Origins of Mecca
The Quran states in Sura 2.125-127 that Mecca was originally built by Adam who placed the black stone there, and centuries later the Kaaba was rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael.
Archaeology only reveals Mecca’s existence dating back to the 8th century in Continuato Byzantia Arabica that developed from a small town of people. Mecca is not on any natural trade routes, it is a barren desert valley as a hundred mile detour.
This structure would have been easily buried beneath Noah’s flood if it had existed back then, and there is no record of Abraham come even close to this position.
Archaeological evidence actually points to its origin to early settlers of the area who were pagan worshippers that using the stone and many stones in part of the original pagan temple built many centuries before Islam to worship many gods, which became the Ka’aba.
Qibla – Wrong Direction for Prayer
According to the Quran, the direction for prayer (the Qibla) was supposed to be towards Mecca, in 624 a.d. two years after Hijra (Sura 2.144, 149-150).
Archaeological evidence shows that the first mosques which were built at the end of the 8th century point close to Jerusalem, far too north from Mecca.
The Qibla in in the first mosque of Kufa from 670 a.d. pointed west instead of south towards Mecca! The Umayyad build in 650 a.d. in Iraq reveal their Qibla was to the north, not towards Mecca.
Jacob of Odessa a Christian write historically recorded that the Muslims of Egypt in 705 a.d. prayed facing east towards Palestine, not towards Mecca.
This archaeological evidence shows that Mecca was not the original place of prayer, but it was most likely Jerusalem.
Crucifixion and Crosses in wrong Era
Sura 7.124- pharaoh advised his sorcerers by threatening them with death threats on the cross (Moses lived 1200 b.c.)
Sura 12.41- the baker story of Joseph is told he would be crucified. (Joseph lived 1500 b.c.)
History and archaeology reveals the origin of this most painful death being used among the Seleucids, Carthagians and Romans as earliest as 600 b.c. all the way until 4th century a.d. During ancient Egypt in Moses and Josephs times, this form of execution did not even exist.
Samaritans in wrong Era
Sura 20.85-97 describes the Israelites bowing down to the molten calf in 1500 b.c., saying it was a Samaritan that molded the golden calf.
Samaritans and the term was not created until sometime around after Israel went into Babylonian captivity around 700b.c. when Israelites where interbreeding with Babylonians. Their children eventually became known as Samaritans.
Quran says Jesus was Moses nephew!
Quran Ch.3 confuses the virgin Mary, the family is called Amram or Imram. Mohammad was confused about the time separation between the two Mary’s mentioned and about biblical history (over 1500 years difference); Sura 18.28, 66.12, 20.25-30; Mary the mother of Jesus with Mary the sister of Aaron and Moses the daughter of Imram and attributed Jesus birth to her (Sura 19.28).
Even if the bible was completely wrong, the historic and archaeological evidence pointing to these two completely different people shows the writer of the Qurans lack of historic understanding.
Who Were the First Muslims?
Who was the first to believe Moses, Abraham or Mohammad?
Sura 3.67, 6.14 says Abraham, Sura 7.143 says it was Moses. Sura 6.163, 39.12 says it was Mohammad.
Why would Christians or Jews have ever existed? If Muslims where always the true believers, then when God revealed His truth to the people groups of Jews and Gentile (non-Jews) they would have become Muslims from the start. Why is Islam a religion that only began in 600ad?
Also if the children of Ishmael where really God’s chosen people why would he have ever spoken to or through the Jewish people, God would have used the Arab people. Why did God choose Jews as his prophets and voice pieces and not Arabic people until 600 a.d.? Rather during all this time before 600 a.d. the Arab people had always been heavily involved in pagan worship, never the God of the Bible.
Abraham and Nimrod where Enemies
The Quran says that Nimrod and Abraham where enemies, but they were separated by over 1000 years. – Sura 21.51-71; 37.97,98
Challenges & Tests of the Quran
No one can create a chapter like it
Basically the Quran says because of the standard of it poetic nature, it is divine and could only have been written by Allah. It stands on the beauty of its poetry to insinuate that it has a supernatural origin, and that no one can simulate it poetic beauty.
Unfortunately for this claim; there are many poetic and inspiring works not only similar but even more constructive and beautiful then many of the Qurans original writings. Many secular poets have composed equally inspiring and beautiful works, and the bible has the psalms that very poetic and beautiful:
(If a Muslim disputes “well that because the psalms came from Allah,” you can say “so you do believe that the bible is unchanged by men then?” Because if it was change men and still poetically like the Quran then you have to accept it as God’s word; if not, you are admitting that men can make poems as beautiful as the Quran!)
This Qur’an is not such as can be produced by other than Allah; on the contrary it is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book – wherein there is no doubt – from the Lord of the worlds.
Or do they say, “He forged it”? say: “Bring then a Sura like unto it, and call (to your aid) anyone you can besides Allah, if it be ye speak the truth!” – Sura 10.37-38
Or they may say, “He forged it,” Say, “Bring ye then ten suras forged, like unto it, and call (to your aid) whomsoever ye can, other than Allah!- If ye speak the truth! – Sura 11.13
And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true. – Sura 2.23
Poems and Literature as Beautiful as the Quran
(see if you can tell the difference in the quotes below, to determine their origins from either the Quran, the Bible, or a misc. teacher; look at the bottom of this page to reference the answers where each of the quotes came from):
- 1.) “The realisation of God without the realisation of our misery makes man proud. The realisation of our misery without the realisation of God leads to despair. The realisation of Christ mediates between the two, for in Him we find God and our misery.”
- 2.) “Humility and a deep consciousness of our own unworthiness are the true marks of holiness. The nearer we live to Him of Whom the angels chant ‘Holy, holy, holy Lord God Almighty, the more we will confess our own sinfulness and rejoice in His Holiness.”
- 3.) “Unless God has raised you up for this very thing, you will be worn out by the opposition of men and devils. But if God be for you, who can be against you? Are all of them together stronger than God? O be not weary of well doing!”
- 4.) “Beware you be not swallowed up in books! An ounce of love is worth a pound of knowledge.”
- 5.) A generation which wishes for a religion without tears must find it difficult to adjust its beliefs to the teaching of the New Testament and of the facts of life…
- 6.) One day shall We gather them all together. Then shall We say to those who joined gods (with Us): “To your place! ye and those ye joined as ‘partners’ We shall separate them, and their “Partners” shall say: “It was not us that ye worshipped!
- 7.) Mankind was but one nation, but differed (later). Had it not been for a word that went forth before from thy Lord, their differences would have been settled between them.
- 8.) Those who love the life of this world more than the Hereafter, who hinder (men) from the Path of God and seek therein something crooked: they are astray by a long distance.
- 9.) Then the priests the Levites arose and blessed the people: and their voice was heard, and their prayer came up to his holy dwelling place, even unto heaven.
- 10.) Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spakest with them from heaven, and gavest them right judgments, and true laws, good statutes and commandments:
- 11.) For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard
Someone would have found a contradiction if it wasn’t true.
One of the tests of the Quran, it says to test and see if there are any contradictions (discrepancies) in it. This test of the Quran has been shown debunked for centuries now. There are very strong contradictions in the Quran not only scientifically, metaphorically, but it also strongly contradicts itself from many different passages.
Do they not consider the Qur’an (with care)? Had it been from other Than Allah, they would surely have found therein Much discrepancy. – Sura 4.82
You’ll Lose Your Eyesight
If you look upwards while praying you’ll lose your eyesight (recorded in the Bukhari Vol.1 717). This is another example of superstitious teachings of the Muslims that will not happen, and is proven false every time someone does look up during prayer!
You’re Face Will Turn Into A Donkeys Face
Don’t raise from prayer before the Imam (Muslim cleric leading the prayer), or God will turn face into a donkeys face. (recorded in the Bukhari Vol.1 660) This is another example of superstitious made up beliefs of the Muslim teachings. Nobodies face has ever been turned into a donkey when they rose up first during prayer.
How to Witness to Muslims
The writers of the Quran had a very poor understanding of history, biblical teaching, and external facts outside of their own communities. All of the Qurans claims and tests don’t have accuracy and it cannot even stand up to its own test that it lays out for itself.
Someone has to come to the point of being willing to accept their own person beliefs are possibly wrong. Everyone needs and must test what they believe to prove whether or not it is true. It their primary doctrine, like the Quran, doesn’t stand up to it acclaimed ‘divine’ tests, then it was obviously created by men.
“How do you know what you believe is true?”
The Bible has hundreds archaeological, scientific and prophetic facts in each category; and the few minimal controversies are over very small issues compared to the amount of provable evidence we can obtain form each other affirmed category. The nitpicking that non-believers have to do to get one small thing that seems to contradict something in the bible holds no water to the vast amount of evidence seen in all the other passages
The Quran has all conflicting archaeological evidence, no miracles or prophecies, and its origins are very controversial. All evidence of the Quran point to it being the work of a man, without even 1 provable apologetic in any of its categories, the Quran could absolutely not have been divinely inspired.
Logically, if you are just going to believe something someone told you, you are simply following the words of a man. If you believe something only because your family told you too or you where raised a specific way, you are just following your family tradition. You MUST do the research yourself to find the right answer.
When you put something to the test, and the end result is something that could not have come from a man, then it must be supernatural!
To the ‘Poem Questions’
These are the references to each of the quotes under the ‘poetry of the Quran’ section:
- 1.) Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) (French mathematician)
- 2.) Jim Elliot (American)
- 3.) John Wesley – American Evangelist
- 4.) John Wesley- American evangelist
- 5.) R.W. Inge
- 6.) Quran – Sura 10.28
- 7.) Quran – Sura 10.19
- 8.) Quran – Sura 14.3
- 9.) Bible KJV 2Chron 30.27
- 10.) Bible KJV Nehemiah 9.13
- 11.) Bible KJV Matthew 20.1
- Quran – Senda Quran – Read the Quran for Free
- Lori Peek, Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans After 9/11, Temple University Press, 2010. p.46.
- A history of pagan Europe. Prudence Jones, Nigel Pennick. Psychology Press, 1995. ISBN 0-415-09136-5 p.77
- Moon-o-theism, Volume II: Religion of a War and Moon God Prophet. Yoel Natan, 2006. ISBN 1439297177 pp.312
- Gregory Starrett, “Islam and the Politics of Enchantment”, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, May 2009, vol. 15. S222-S240.
- Donald E Gowan, The Westminster theological wordbook of the Bible, Westminster John Knox Press, 2003, p.168.
- A. Jeffrey, Islam: Mohammed and His Religion, Liberal Arts Press. 1958. ASIN: B000IXMTE4 pp. 85
- Studies on Islam. Merlin L. Swartz. University Press, 1981. ISBN 0195027167 pp.12
- Alfred Guillaume. Islam. Penguin 1990 ISBN 0140135553 pp.7
- Timothy C. Tennent, Theology in the Context of World Christianity, Zondervan, 2009.
- Hilal – Oxford Islamic Studies Online
- “Reply To Dr. Robert Morey’s Moon-God Myth & Other Deceptive Attacks On Islam” by Shabbir Ally
- F. Hommel, First Encyclopedia of Islam, eds. M.T. Houtsma, T.W. Arnold, R. Basset, and R. Hartmann, Vol. 1, pp. 379-380
- C. Glassé, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 185
- The Moon-god Allah in the Archeology of the Middle East. Newport, PA : Research and Education Foundation, 1994
- Jack G. Shaheen, Arab and Muslim Stereotyping in American Popular Culture, Centre For Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University Occasional Papers, p. 8.
- Donald E. Schmidt, The folly of war: American foreign policy, 1898-2005, Algora, 2005, p.347.
- Farzana Hassan, Prophecy and the fundamentalist quest: an integrative study of Christian and Muslim apocalyptic religion, McFarland, 2008, P.17
- J. Wellhausen, Reste Arabischen Heidenthums. pp.75
- The idea of idolatry and the emergence of Islam: from polemic to history. Cambridge studies in Islamic civilization. Gerald R. Hawting. Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0521651654 pp.112
- also mentioned in Meccan trade and the rise of Islam, Patricia Crone, Gorgias Press LLC, 2004, ISBN 1593331029 pp.185-195
- S. Noja, “Hubal = Allah”, Rendiconti: Instituto Lombardo Accademia Di Scienze E Lettere, 1994, Volume 128, pp. 283-295.
- D. S. Margoliouth, Mohammed And The Rise Of Islam, 1905, p. 19
- David Adams Leeming, Jealous gods and chosen people: the mythology of the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 2004, p.121.
- Hugo Winckler, Arabisch, Semitisch, Orientalisch: Kulturgeschichtlich-Mythologische Untersuchung, 1901, W. Peiser: Berlin, p. 83.
- Eliade, Adams, The Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 1, Macmillan, 1987, p.365.
- Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the origins of Islam, SUNY Press, 1994, p.109.
- Patricia Crone. Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Gorgias Press LLC. 2004. ISBN-10: 1593331029 pp.192-193
- L. Gardet, Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam
- See Qur’an 37:158)
- See Qur’an (6:100)
- See Qur’an (53:19-22 ; 16:57 ; 37:149)
- See Qur’an (53:26-27)
- Gerhard Böwering, God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an
- See Qur’an 6:109; 10:22; 16:38; 29:65)
- A. Guillaume, The Life Of Muhammad: A Translation Of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah, 2004 (18th Impression), op. cit., p. 386.
- Islamic-Awareness, Reply To Robert Morey’s Moon-God Allah Myth: A Look At The Archaeological Evidence
- Bruce Lawrence (ed), Messages to the world: the statements of Osama Bin Laden, Verso, 2005, p.105.
- Michael Burleigh (November 7, 2005). “A murderous message”. Evening Standard (London).
- “Transcript: English translation of Zawahiri message”. Fox News. November 19, 2008.
- Adnan A. Musallam, From Secularism to Jihad: Sayyid Qutb and the Foundations of Radical Islamism, Praeger. 2005. Pp. xiii, 261. Reviewed by Bruce B. Lawrence in American Historical Review, Vol 3, no 3, June 2006.
- Quran Poetry – http://answering-islam.org/Nehls/Ask/like.html