Creation Science – Science Studies – Fundamental Information Theory
Table of Contents
As the fields of science and technology advance, researchers and theorists have been able to gain more understanding into how the universe works on a fundamental level. This has lead researchers and scientists to understand that the universe, or reality, primarily functions based from information. This would indicate that information is not only independent of the physical universe, but rather, it is the physical universe that depends on information for its structure and function.
Quantum Measurements and the Division of Units
In physics we understand that the most basic, sub atomic particles in the universe exist as the fundamental particles. Fundamental meaning they are the most basic particles that cannot (as far as we know) be sub divided in any other smaller unit.
The Sub atomic particles make up all known physical materials in the universe. [i.e. Fermions (Matter Constituents); Leptons (neutrino, electron, muon, tau) and Quarks (up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom); and Bosons (Force Carriers); Unified Weak force (photons and bosons) or Strong force (gluons) or Higgs Boson. When we subject these fundamental particles to testing, we observe strange outcomes and find insight into the fundamental nature of information.
In Quantum Field Theory (QFT), electrons are defined as an excitation in the electron or quantum field. To measure an electron, one may pose specific questions about its quantum state; such as its position or energy (momentum), however you cannot know both as the same time. This is due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which states when you measure one of the attributes of the quantum state, the other will become indeterminable.
The attributes of an electron are encapsulated in its wave function. The wave function is the construct that allows the simultaneous measurement of probabilities associated with each quantum state. Embedded within the wave function is information, the mathematical probabilities intricately correlated to each quantum state. It is information (formula or equations or blueprints) that determines the existence, structure and the proper function of these quantum states that take effect in out three dimensional universe.
Definition of Information
Information is the fundamental instruction (and arrangement) by which a system (or something) receives its design and function. Information is the removal of randomness (entropy) from a system.
Information Theory and Entropy
Information Theory classically defines information as the amount of entropy a system contains and the max amount of entropy it could contain. We know in physics, based on thermodynamics that all things move towards entropy or towards randomness which is a loss of organized information, equilibrium of substance randomly spread out.
- Max Entropy = 0 Information (organized)
- 0 Entropy = Max Information (organized)
This concept is classically defined in Claude Shannon’s work A Mathematical Theory of Communication. In this technical paper, Shannon works out a way to quantify the unit of information, as the bit; and that information could achieve perfect communication error free by removing entropy (randomness). The unit of a bit in our physical universe would be the smallest most divisible unit that a particle could be split into.
How Information is Fundamental
Information was classically described as an emergent property of physical processes. Those physical processes, as they became more complex, were thought to create or manifest information based on its needs. However as modern science and technology advanced, we are finding that it is physical reality that is emergent based on the properties of information, and that information is more fundamental as the building blocks or design of all things that are constructed in the universe.
Information theory proposes that physical structures and processes in the universe at their most basic foundation is determined and constructed by information. This derives the inference that all particles and field in the physical universe have their existence based on information, whether information itself is a plane or field some other fundamental source.
Structure from Information
The structure of particles and instructions of fields in our universe are determined by information. This means that the formation of all particles follows the instructions made possible but the laws of physics and are built upon those rules to form their structures. Matter emerges from information and follows its rules. This would also lead to the idea that the concept of a structure exists apart from its physical manifestation.
i.e., A crystal. Atoms form molecules bases on the principles of crystallization and form a crystalline structure set forth by the laws of the weak nuclear forces as the atoms combine and build upon each other in an ordered arrangement, i.e. sodium chloride molecules form together in a cubic form to make a salt crystal.
However the fact that a crystal forms in this arranged pattern, in the same way throughout the entire universe, under the same laws of physics, shows that information or blueprints for its construction is written in the universe. These particles are the bits that are organized according to how the law of physics determines their arrangements; as the entropy of the crystal’s particles equal 0, the crystal forms.
The fact that this is how the particles behave and form a particular structure when arranged in a specific manner reveals the information that already exists in the universe for the manifestation or creation of a crystal.
Another way to state this is: even if there were no crystals in the entire universe, the fact remains that one would come into existence with the right materials put into the proper order, therefore the information for a crystal remains. The fact that crystals information exists within some fundamental blueprint external to any particle or field and determines the construction of the crystal under the right conditions. This shows that possible concepts are not arbitrary but are real entities that exist in the construct of reality.
One remarkable example that reflects this type of principle is the folding of proteins into three-dimensional, functioning machines from an almost two-dimensional information strand of DNA.
Hierarchy of Information
Complex systems and their emergent properties manifest when various sub structures work together in proper order based on the proper arrangement of particles in correspondence to information. Seemingly unrelated particles work together to create greater complex systems.
The increase of entropy (random interactions and particles) throughout the universe is the loss of organized information. Information specifically organized in accordance to various laws of particles and fields have specific combinations that allow for the manifestation of working complex systems. These working, seemingly unrelated, complex systems in turn can work together to create even larger more complex systems.
Take for instance the various types of sub atomic particles, that can work together to create atoms or the chemicals of our universe. These atoms can work together to form molecules. Seemingly unrelated molecules can be organized in specific patterns to create amino acids. These amino acids can in turn make even more complex systems like DNA. These systems contain multiple complex structures that work together to generate higher level functionality, separate from their independent components functions, reveal specific information patterns designed for specific purposes.
Cause and Effect from Information
Information determines how cause and effects occurs. Information and the design of a system determine the construction of particles or fields that build some cause or actuator, and the effects are determined by information about those constructs. The construction of a system was discussed previously; however the product or effect of a system also adheres to the laws of physics as determined by the design or information contained in the universe about how that system will work.
Actual Causation in information theory is the consideration of what causes each function in a system.
Built in Mathematical Information in the Universe
The universal constants (physical constant) in the universe determine many important aspects of the fundamental particles and fields in physics. If the universal constants where changed or different, the universe as we know it, like particles, would not be able to exist.
- C – Speed of Light – 299,792,458 m s^-1
- G – Newtonian Gravity – 6.67430 x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2
- h – Planck Constant – 6.62607015 x10 ^-34 J Hz^-1
Physical or Universal Constants are dimensionless. The universal constants are another important aspect of information that is embedded in the universe, as evidence for the information theory being something external to any physical attribute. These specific values are information, information that is not caused by any known aspect of the universe, but rather is the actuator for many of the physical aspects of the universe.
Consciousness and Information Theory
Consciousness is an example of one of the most complex systems in our universe. Multiple experiments have shown that consciousness is not in any one specific portion of our brain, but is rather the combination of multiple systems working together. Consciousness being defined as the ego centric part of you that is aware of your own existence.
- See Science Studies – Consciousness
- See Science Studies – Boundaries of Reality
Axioms, Information Theory and Their Correlation to the Bible
Information theory reveals there is more to the universe then the material world and that it is created by things unseen. Which is what the Bible tell us in Hebrews 11.3. The Bible also teaches us that God uphold all creation by the power of His Word, which could easily be correlated to information in Hebrews 1.3.
Finally, we are taught that in the beginning, the Word was with God and the Word was God. That the Word of God became flesh who was Christ (in John 1.1-14). The word in the Greek here is logos, which is translated to the logic, thought, principle or speech. These are terms heavily correlated with information. It is interesting to find these principles, of information being fundamental to the structure and design of the universe, just now being understood in physics through information theories, where taught thousands of years ago in the Bible.