Holidays, Calendars and Seasons – Samhain
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The origin of Halloween, also known as All Hallows’ Eve, is a holiday celebrated on the evening of October 31st. It has ancient roots in historic Christian traditions and pagan religion and has evolved over time into the holiday we know today. The history of Halloween is a combination and blending of pagan traditions, Christian influences, and modernized customs.
Halloween is heavily rooted in the ancient pagan holiday Samhain which was a different celebration than Halloween we know today. Halloween has evolved overtime and has become a blend of various different holiday traditions picked up over the centuries.
Etymology and Timing
The word Halloween comes from the Christian influence of Hallows Eve or Hallo Eve or All Saint’s Eve. The word itself is from Scottish or Gaelic origin. All Hallows Day or All Saint’s Day was celebrated on November 1st by the early Christian Church, in celebration of those who were martyred for their faith. Samhain (pronounced “sow-in” or SAW-Win) the pagan celebration that marked the end of the harvest season was celebrated on October 31st to Nov 1st. It marked the darker half of the year.
Origin and History
Most historians agree that the origins of Halloween as we know it today did originate from the early Church attempts to reach the pagan population by Christianizing their Holidays. Halloweens genesis can be traced back to the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain. Samhain marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter in Celtic culture, which was primarily based in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.
The origins of Halloween can be traced back to ancient pagan traditions, particularly the Celtic festival of Samhain. Samhain was celebrated by the Celts, who lived in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, and marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter. There are not many writings that record the origins or beliefs of Samhain as the people who celebrated it mostly passed on information orally. Historians know that the tradition of Samhain dates back centuries, as the first historical record of the holiday can be found engraved on a bronze calendar that was found in Coligny, France, in the 1st century B.C.E.
In the 8th century, Pope Gregory III designated November 1st as All Saints’ Day, also known as All Hallows’ Day. The night before, October 31st, became All Hallows’ Eve, which later morphed into Halloween over the years. In the 9th century, Christianity spread into Celtic lands, and the Catholic Church sought to replace pagan festivals with Christian holidays. The Church aimed to Christianize the Celtic festival of Samhain by intertwining it with the new Christian holiday.
All Saints Day
The origins of All Saints’ Day can be found in the early Christian practices of commemorating and honoring martyrs and saints. In the first few centuries of Christianity, there were numerous martyrs who suffered and died for their faith. The earliest recorded mention of a feast honoring the martyrs can be traced back to the 4th century in Antioch, where a festival called the Feast of All Martyrs was celebrated.
The establishment of All Saints’ Day as a universal feast day can be attributed to Pope Boniface IV. In 609 CE, he consecrated the Pantheon in Rome to the Virgin Mary and all the Christian martyrs, establishing it as a church dedicated to their honor. The date chosen for this consecration was May 13th, which became the date for the Feast of All Martyrs in Rome.
In the following centuries, the recognition of saints expanded beyond just martyrs to include all those who lived holy lives and attained heaven. Pope Gregory III, in the 8th century, officially designated November 1st as a day to honor all saints, not just martyrs. This date was chosen to coincide with the pagan festival of Samhain, as mentioned earlier, in an effort to Christianize and provide an alternative to the existing pagan celerations.
Over time, All Saints’ Day became an important feast day in the Catholic Church and was celebrated with special religious services, prayers, and processions. It was seen as a day to honor the exemplary lives of the saints, seek their intercession, and remember the faithful departed.
All Saints’ Day continues to be observed by Catholics and some Protestant denominations worldwide. It is a time for believers to remember and honor the saints, seek their intercession, and reflect on the call to live holy lives. It is a day of joy and celebration, recognizing the spiritual legacy left by those who have gone before.
Halloween was not widely celebrated in America until the influx of Irish and Scottish immigrants in the 19th century. They brought their Halloween traditions with them, and these customs began to merge with Native American and colonial influences. The practice of trick-or-treating became more popular, and communities started hosting Halloween parties and events. Trick-or-treating became a widespread tradition, where children go from door to door, dressed in costumes, and collect candy.
Halloween today is celebrated in various countries around the world, albeit with cultural variations. It has become a holiday associated with costume parties, haunted attractions, pumpkin carving, horror movies, and a general atmosphere of fun and spookiness.
Religious Beliefs & Ceremonies
In Samhain, it was believed that on the night of October 31st, the boundary between the living and the dead was blurred, allowing spirits to roam the earth. To ward off these roaming spirits, the Celts would light bonfires and wear costumes made of animal heads and skins. They also believed that the presence of spirits made it easier for Druids (Celtic priests) to make predictions about the future. This mixture of religious and supernatural beliefs formed the basis of Halloween’s association with ghosts, witches, and fortune-telling.
Samhain was considered a time when the veil between worlds was thinnest, making it easier to connect with supernatural forces. Samhain was an important agricultural festival, marking the end of the harvest season. It was a time to give thanks for the bounty of the year and prepare for the winter ahead. The festival held significant spiritual and supernatural beliefs and various key aspects of Samhain have been retained from their original pagan beliefs. They thought that the spirits of the deceased would return to the earthly realm during this time. To honor and appease these spirits, the Celts would leave food and offerings outside their homes.
The Celts would light large bonfires on Samhain to ward off evil spirits and provide protection during the dark winter months. These bonfires were seen as a symbol of purification and renewal. The Celts would dress in costumes made of animal heads and skins, believing that it would disguise them from malevolent spirits. These costumes were also used in divination rituals, allowing the Druids to make predictions about the future. Druids would perform divination rituals, such as reading the entrails of sacrificed animals or interpreting the movements of the flames from bonfires, to gain insight into the coming year
When Christianity spread into Celtic lands, the Catholic Church attempted to Christianize pagan festivals. In the 8th century, Pope Gregory III designated November 1st as All Saints’ Day (All Hallows’ Day), and the evening before became known as All Hallows’ Eve, later evolving into Halloween.
The Church aimed to replace the pagan practices with Christian traditions, but many of the ancient pagan beliefs and customs persisted, merging with Christian influences. While Halloween has changed over time and incorporates various cultural elements, its pagan origins are rooted in the Celtic festival of Samhain and its practices associated with spirits, divination, and harvest celebrations.
During the middle ages Halloween retained many of its pagan and folk traditions. People continued to light bonfires and wear costumes, but the animal heads and skins were replaced with more symbolic outfits, such as saints, angels, and demons. People also began going from house to house, reciting verses or singing songs in exchange for food. This tradition, known as “souling” or “guising,” is believed to be the precursor to modern-day trick-or-treating, which originated from the traditions of All Saints Day giving out Soul Cakes.
The most common modern day Halloween customs including trick or treating, giving of candy and parties.
Significant Icons or Attributes
Halloween is associated with a variety of symbols and imagery that contribute to the holiday’s atmosphere that has caricaturized the theme of the occult and horror over the years.
Jack-o’-Lantern – The Jack-o’-Lantern is believed to have originated from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack, who was said to roam the Earth with a carved turnip lantern.
Ghosts – One of the most common symbols of Halloween are ghosts, representing the spirit realm and the belief that the veil between the living and the dead is thin during this time.
Witches – Witches are a prominent Halloween symbol, often depicted as old, haggard women with pointed hats, broomsticks, and cauldrons. This imagery is influenced by folklore, legends, and the association of witches with magic and spells.
Black Cats – Black cats are considered both a symbol of good luck and bad luck depending on cultural beliefs. In Halloween imagery, they are often portrayed as companions of witches and are associated with mysticism and superstition.
Moon and Stars: The moon, particularly a full moon, is often depicted in Halloween imagery, adding an element of mystery and nocturnal ambiance. Stars also contribute to the night sky setting of Halloween.
Haunted Houses: Haunted houses are a quintessential symbol of Halloween. These dilapidated and eerie dwellings represent the supernatural, ghosts, and the thrill of being scared during the holiday.
Symbolic and Associated Foods
Halloween is traditionally associated with specific foods like all other celebrated Holidays. There are various treats and snacks that have become popular during the holiday season.
Candy –The most prevalent and known food of this Holiday. Halloween is closely linked to candy, particularly the tradition of trick-or-treating. Children go door-to-door in costume, collecting candy from neighbors. Popular Halloween candies include miniature chocolate bars, candy corn, gummy candies, lollipops, and chewy treats.
Caramel Apples: Caramel apples, also known as toffee apples, are a favorite Halloween treat. Apples are coated in sticky caramel and often decorated with nuts, chocolate, or other toppings. They are sometimes enjoyed as a festive and indulgent snack during the holiday.
Pumpkin Pie: Pumpkin pie is a classic dessert associated with Halloween and the fall season. Made from pumpkin puree, spices, and a flaky crust, it is a popular choice for Thanksgiving as well. Enjoying a slice of pumpkin pie during Halloween gatherings adds a seasonal touch to the festivities.
Halloween-Themed Treats: Many people enjoy baking or creating Halloween-themed treats and desserts. These can include cookies shaped like ghosts, bats, or pumpkins, cupcakes decorated with spider webs or black cats, or cakes designed to resemble haunted houses or graveyards. The creativity and spooky designs add to the festive spirit of Halloween.
Soul cakes have their origin in medieval Christian customs associated with All Souls’ Day, which is observed on November 2nd. All Souls’ Day is a day set aside to pray for the souls of the departed, particularly the souls in purgatory, in the Catholic tradition.
During the Middle Ages, a practice known as “souling” emerged in England and parts of Europe. It involved the ringing of bells, processions, and the distribution of soul cakes as a way to remember the dead and seek prayers for their souls. Soul cakes were small, round cakes that were traditionally baked with spices, currants, and raisins. They were often marked with a cross or other religious symbols.
On All Souls’ Day, children and the poor would go door-to-door, singing or saying prayers for the dead and receiving soul cakes in return. This practice was similar to the modern tradition of Halloween trick-or-treating but with a religious and charitable aspect. It was believed that by giving soul cakes to the soulers, the householders were helping the souls of their departed loved ones find rest and salvation.
The tradition of soul cakes continued for centuries, particularly in rural areas of England. However, with the Reformation and changing religious practices, the custom gradually faded. In the 19th and 20th centuries, soul cakes became less associated with All Souls’ Day and more with the secular holiday of Halloween. The practice of going door to door is what eventually gave rise to the tradition of trick or treating after many destructive events by juveniles in the early 1900 occurs in various cities in the U.S.
Dangers of Halloween
Halloween typically caricaturizes the occult and witchcraft. It waters down many dangerous spiritual aspects that can lead people into unhealthy inquiry into the occult, and dangers encounters with demonic influences. Secular society that bases their understanding and beliefs primarily on Humanism and Materialism place no value on the supernatural. Therefore Halloween becomes another entertainment prop to make money off the public with candies and decorations. The practices of the occult are down played as a caricaturisation that is repackaged for families and children.
The problem with this is the spiritual infatuation that many people have with the occult because it is highly seductive, and brings many into a lifestyle that attracts them into the occult. Halloween like many other occult caricaturisation, are doorways that can lead people into much darker lifestyles.
The Bible teaches us that we have freedom in Christ; however we should not use our freedom for an occasion of the flesh – Gal 5.13. There will be arguments on both sides of the fence concerning the issue of celebrating Halloween, one side against being too legalistic, others pressed against any form of the occult.
The question we should always ask ourselves as Christians when it comes to anything in our lives should be, “Does this thing I’m doing Glory God in my life?” For all that we do should be for God’s glory 1 Corin 10.31. It is also the duty of parents to protect our children from the occult and satisfy them spiritually with the spiritual Bread of Life – John 8.35!