Table of Contents
Christology is the study of Jesus Christology. Who is Jesus Christ and what did He do. This is the study of the doctrine of Christology that typically encompasses all the theological and historic matters concerning the nature and work of Christ, including His incarnation, resurrection, divine and human characteristics.
Christ comes from the Greek word Christos or Xpistos which means the anointed one. This is directly correlated to the word Messiah in Hebrew, which also mean anointed one. The Anointed One referred to the one in scripture that is chosen and anointed by God for a special purpose.
Name of Jesus or Yeshua
There are some critics that argue against the authenticity of Jesus name. They state His name could not have been Jesus as the J was not even invented in the English language until circa the 15th century. This is simply corrected by understanding that the name Jesus in the Greek Old Testament, in the earliest manuscripts, was Iesous. When translated to English it was Iesus, and when the J was invented it carried the phonetic of the word more accurately then the I. Therefore His name is translated correctly to English today as ‘Jesus.’
The Hebrew name for Yeshua (pronounced Jah-Shua) translated to English is Joshua. Iesous is the Greek translation for the name Yeshua. It is the same name translated between the three different pronunciations of the different languages. They all have the same meaning, which is ‘Jah saves’ which is shirt for Yahweh saves, or ‘The LORD is my Salvation.’
Other variants of His name are Yahushua HaMashiach, or Joshua the Messiah, meaning Jah our Salvation the Anointed One. Translated to the Greek it would have been Iesous Xpistos, or Jesus Christ or God our Salvation the Anointed One.
We know that God moved the Biblical writers along by the Spirit to write and translate the information according to the will of God (2 Tim 3.16), therefore since the original writers wrote Jesus name as Iesous or Jesus in the English, that is a Biblically accurate translation and interpretation of His name.
God the Son
Christ as God has all the attributes of God covered in the article:
Christ is the Eternal Son of the Father, the second person of the revealed Triune Godhead. He dwelt with the Father in eternity past and dwells with Him forever. (Col 2.9, Rom 1.20, John 17.24)
Christ’s Dual Natures
The doctrine of the two natures of Christ is known as the hypostatic union. This means that Christ was fully God and fully human and the two natures cannot be separated. He was both God and man at the same time, and still is both God and Man. In the Council of Nicaea, it was determined that the Greek word ‘homoousios’ was used meaning ‘of one substance,’ declaring Christ was not made, but begotten of the same substance as the Father.
God can do all that He chooses and He chose incarnate into this world as a man to save his creation from sin to demonstrate His love towards us.
Confirmation of Divinity
The Bible confirms Jesus was God. There are multiple verses that explain that Jesus was God, that He was God manifest in the flesh.
“Jesus answered them: ‘I solemnly declare it: before Abraham came to be, I AM.” – John 8.58
”The Father and I are one” – John 10.30
Everything has been given over to me by my Father. No one knows the Son but the Father, and no one knows the Father but the Son – and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal him. – Matt 11.27
In the beginning was the Word; the Word was in God’s presence and the Word was God…. Through him all things came into being, and apart from him nothing came to be…. The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we have seen his glory: the glory of an only Son coming from the Father, filled with enduring love…. For while the law was given through Moses, this enduring love came thorough Jesus Christ. No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, ever at the Father’s side, who has revealed him. – John 1.1,3,14,17,18
In Christ the fullness of deity resides in bodily form – Colossians 2.9
He is the image of the invisible God, the first born of all creatures. In him everything in heaven and on earth was created – Colossians 1.15-16
Though he was in the form of God, he did not deem equality with God something to be grasped at…. Because of this, God highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name above every other name, so that at Jesus’ name every knee must bend in the heavens, on the earth, and under the earth, and every tongue proclaim to the glory of God the Father ‘JESUS CHRIST IS LORD! – Phil 2.6, 10-11
This Son is the reflection of the Father’s glory, the exact representation of the Father’s being, and he sustains all things by his powerful word. When he had cleansed us from our sins, he took his seat at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven, as far superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs – Hebrews 1.3
Their unbelieving minds have been blinded by the god of the present age so that they do not see the splendor of the gospel showing forth the glory of Christ, the image of God – 2 Corin 4.4
To the One seated on the throne, and to the Lamb, be praise and honor, glory and might, forever and ever!’ The four living creatures answered, ‘Amen,’ and the elders fell down and worshiped – Revelation 5.12-14
Christ’s Attributes as God
- He is Creator (John 1.1)
- He is the I Am, the self-sustaining one (John 8.58)
- He is Eternal (Rev 1.8)
- He has the Glory of God (John 17.5)
- He is Immutable (unchanging) (Hebrews 13.8)
- He is Omnipresent (Matt 28.18-20, Eph 4.10)
- He is Omnipotent (Heb 1.3, Matt 28.18)
- He is Omniscient (Matt 11.27, John 2.25, Rev 2.23)
Confirmation of Human Attributes
Jesus took on the title, ‘the Son of Man,’ which refer to his heritage as a human. It also refers to His legal title as a son of Adam or of man. Being a son of Man allows his to become the arbitrator between men as He is of mankind and can relate to them. Matt 9.6, 20.28, Mark 8.31,
- 1. His mother was human (Matt 1.23)
- 2. He had prenatal development (Luke 1.42-45; 2.5-7)
- 3. He has a human childhood (Luke 2.21-22, 51-52)
- 4. He grew physically and learned as other children (Luke 2.52)
- 5. He got hungry (Matt 4.2)
- 6. He got thirsty (John 2.2)
- 7. He got tempted by the Devil (Matt 4.1; Heb 4.15)
- 8. He got tired (Mark 6.31)
- 9. He wept over sad events (John 11.35)
- 10. He had human relatives, mother, brothers, sisters, and a father in law (Matt 1.24; Mark 6.3)
- 11. He had a human occupation (Mark 6.3)
- 12. He had human friends (John 11.5)
- 13. He suffered a human death (John 19.28-34)
- 14. He had mortal enemies that hated and mocked Him
The Only Sinless Man
Jesus being God placed limitations on Himself to live a human life (Phil 2.5-8), for the time of His ministry on Earth. In spite of His own humanity, He still lived a sinless life, as He knew no sin (Heb 4.15). Just as the lamb in the Old Testament that was sacrificed for the sins of the nation of Israel as a foreshowing of Christ’s sacrifice, He Himself had no blemish.
He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth – 1 Peter 2.22
For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God – 1 Peter 3.18
For God made Christ, who never sinned, to be the offering for our sin, so that we could be made right with God through Christ. – 1 Corin 5.21
The Historic records of Jesus enemies affirmed His righteous character. Judas said he betrayed innocent blood (Matt 27.4). Pilate said I am innocent of this just person (Matt 27.19). The centurion said surely this was a righteous man (Luke 23.47). The thief on the cross confess this man has done nothing wrong (Matt 22.16).
Roles of God the Son
The Redeemer – Kinsman Redeemer
Christ is the Redeemer of all mankind. It was foreshadowed and foretold in the Old Testament, and fulfilled in the New Testament.
Only a mediator can act as a bridge between two people. A mediator has to be equal to both people and people groups before they can qualify to be able to mediate between them, otherwise they would not be able to fully relate to either one type of person or the other. This is why Christ had to be both God and Man to be the mediator, the arbitrator between God and man. Job speaks of this in Job 9.
He is not a mere mortal like me that I might answer him, that we might confront each other in court. 33. If only there were someone to mediate between us, someone to bring us together – Job 9.32-33
Christ is the kinsman redeemer of those who are being saved, meaning that He is equal to or of the same kind (kinsman) as those who are being saved. Lev 25.47-55, Heb 2.11.
Jesus Christ is the Savior of all mankind. This is the common theme and pivotal point throughout the entire Bible. All of humanity is utterly damned and cursed because of the sin they have committed against a Holy and Righteous Creator God. But God in his mercy and grace has given to humanity the Savior who would come and take their place for their sin because He loved us (Eph 2.4-5). Jesus saves us from sin and he consequence of sin (Eph 4.7-10).
The Lamb of God
Jesus is the sacrificial Lamb of God who took our place for our sins. All of humanity was to be eternally punished for their sin, but God gave a ransom through His Son (1 Peter 1.18). This was a common element throughout the Old Testament, God allowed a symbolic sacrificial animal to die for atonement for the sin of the person (1 Peter 1.19, Heb 9.12)
The office of high priest was for the one who would annual sacrifice the lamb for the sins of the nation of all Gods people. The line of Aaron or the Levites where to be the priests before God. However the Bible speaks of a higher order of priests, of the order of Melchizedek in Heb 7.17. It was to this line that even Abraham paid reverence to. Jesus is our High Priest, offering himself for our sins (Heb 4.14-16).
Groom of the Bride
Christ is the groom of the Bride. Every marriage that has ever been performed between man and woman since Adam and Eve has been a representation, or archetype of the wedding between Christ and Hid bride, the church. This is the representation of the unity between God and His people, mankind whom He has created. Rev 19.7-9
Jesus was incarnated the first time on this earth as our savior, and in order to be the savior of humanity, He had to come as one that serves. Luke 22.26. He rode into Jerusalem the first time humble on the back of a donkey to show His humility. Matt 21.5-7. It was in this humble state that He gave his life for all those who will believe in His name.
When Christ returns and comes back the second time, He will come as a conquering King. Destroying all those that did not believe on His name. Rev 19.11-16
Christ’s Preincarnate State and Obedience to the Father
Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.” – John 8.58
Christ is the eternal Son of God. This is seen in both the Old and New Testament scriptures. As Son, He is eternally submissive to the Father, evident in eternity past from His willingness to submit to the plan of salvation for humanity as the Redeemer of mankind. – Hebrews 10. 7-10 speaks of this plan that Christ was obedient to.
Then I said, ‘Here I am—it is written about me in the scroll, I have come to do your will, my God.’ 8 First he said, “Sacrifices and offerings, burnt offerings and sin offerings you did not desire, nor were you pleased with them”—though they were offered in accordance with the law. 9 Then he said, “Here I am, I have come to do your will.” He sets aside the first to establish the second. 10 And by that will, we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. – Hebrews 10.7-10
Christ was obedient to the will of the Father while on earth as we see in John 15.10 and Phil 2.6-8.
Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be used to his own advantage; 7 rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. 8 And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death – Philippians 2.6-8
The Bible teaches us that Christ will be obedient to the Father in eternity future as we see in 1 Corin 15.24-28.
Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. 25. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. 26. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.
27. For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him. 28. And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.– 1 Corinthians 15.24-28
Is the Sons Obedience a Contradiction to Being God?
The Son being God and being subject the Father is not a contradiction of Godhood. God reveals Himself to us in three distinct persons and He reveals his attributes to us in various ways. God is able to do all that He pleases but He does exercise restraint in various ways.
God only does things that are good and remain consistent to His nature. He created order and organization including how He portrays the Godhead, making one person subject to another. Even though He is eternal, he organizes and limits various parts of His works in accordance to His will.
I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God. – 1 Corinthians 11.3
Christ’s Eternal Sonship
He Is Self Existing and Creator
Christ is the second person of the Godhead. Christ has no beginning, neither was He created. He is self existing or self sufficient, as He did not require any other being to come into existence.
We see all this in John 1, in the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God and the Word was God. In john 3 we see that through Him all things where made, without Him nothing was made that had been made. Paul was the second testimony to this through the Holy Spirit writing that by Him all things where created in Col 1.16-17.
He Has the Glory of God and was the I Am
Jesus prayed to the Father to be glorified with the glory He had in His presence, the same glory He had before the world began in John 17.5. He told the people He was the great ‘I Am’ from the Old Testament in John 8.58. He proclaimed He was the Eternal Son of the Eternal Father when He said that He and the Father are one in John 10.30-33.
Eternal Son in the Old Testament
Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. 7. I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. 8. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, 12. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, When his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him. – Psalms 2.6-8, 12
Who has ascended to heaven and come down? Who has gathered the wind in his fists? Who has wrapped up the waters in a garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name? Surely you know! – Psalms 30.4-5
For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. – Isaiah 9.6
The Virgin Birth of the Messiah
The first messianic prediction in the Bible was the foreshadowing of His arrival to earth via the virgin birth of a young woman. The Old Testament was implicit about the virgin birth of the Messiah, with hidden foreshadowing of the meaning of the prophecies. The New Testament was explicit about it, being very open about explaining its meaning as the time came for it to occur. Joseph was engaged to Mary, and they did not consummate their marriage until after Jesus was born (v.25).
“How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?” 35 The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called[b] the Son of God – Luke 1.34-35
An angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.”
22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel” (which means “God with us”). 24 When Joseph woke up, he did what the angel of the Lord had commanded him and took Mary home as his wife. 25 But he did not consummate their marriage until she gave birth to a son. And he gave him the name Jesus. – Matthew 1.20-25
Foreshadowed in Genesis
In Genesis 3.15 God spoke to the serpent and said that He would put enmity between you and the seed of the woman. He will crush your head and you will bruise His heel. The notion that the Redeemer or the one to strike the head of the serpent would be the seed of the woman is significant.
This fact of Christ being ‘born of woman’ is referenced back to in Galatians 4.4. In the Jewish patriarch, a man is born of his father, however this verse brings attention to the fact that Christ was ‘born of woman’ to show something out of the ordinary.
The Lineage of the Messiah
At first glance, we find an apparent contradiction in prophecies of the lineage of the Messiah. Then God does something very interesting, and seems to be foreshadowing once again of a virgin birth by doing so. At First God tell King David that the Messiah will come from his loins.
The LORD declares to you that the LORD himself will establish a house for you: 12.When your days are over and you rest with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, your own flesh and blood, and I will establish his kingdom – 2 Samuel 7.11-12
Then the lineage of the king is cursed by King Jeconiah for not following God in his disobedience. God tells Jeconiah that none of his offspring will prosper and no longer shall his offspring sit on the throne forever.
Thus says the LORD: ‘Write this man down as childless, A man who shall not prosper in his days; For none of his descendants shall prosper, Sitting on the throne of David, And ruling anymore in Judah. – Jer 22.30
This supposed contradiction is settled and both prophecies are fulfilled in the genealogies of Mary (Luke 3), Jesus Mother and Joseph (Matt 1.12), Jesus Father in Law. Mary was a descendant of David but not through the lineage of Jeconiah therefore the curse was not passed onto Him.
Prophesy of the Virgin Birth
The virgin birth is predicted in by the prophet Isaiah in the Book of Isaiah Chapter 7 verse 14.
Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel. – Isaiah 7.14
This verse is often criticized by some scholars by using verse 17 to say the prophecy was fulfilled before the invasions of the Assyrian army in 722 b.c. That is fulfillment was the birth of Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz in Isaiah 8.3. Therefore this verse could not be concerning the Messiahs birth.
For before the boy knows enough to reject the wrong and choose the right, the land of the two kings you dread will be laid waste. – Isaiah 7.16
Then I made love to the prophetess, and she conceived and gave birth to a son. And the Lord said to me, “Name him Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz.” – Isaiah 8.3
The interpretation of this verse needs to be understood in light of how Biblical prophecy works, according to Midrash interpretation of prophecy. Jewish prophets or prophecies from God do not work like the western understanding of making a prediction and it simply being fulfilled at a later time.
The Jewish people understood the prophecies that come from God are a statement that represents a work that echoes and cycles throughout time or in multiple instances. Events happen in patterns and repeat in various ways over time. Events foreshadow the future and statements that are fulfilled at a specific time, may represent an event at a later time. This is why people have a hard time understanding Biblical prophecy as it is different than western understanding.
This is the case with the prophecy being fulfilled in Isaiah’s time; he made love to his wife (who was a young virgin) and their son was a type, or foreshadow of the fulfillment of the prophecy. However you see Isaiah still speaks of the virgin birth and the offspring that was to come in Isaiah 9.6.
The child will be the everlasting Father, the Mighty God, and the Prince of Peace. He will be the Messiah. Isaiah was not speaking of his son that was already born, but of another that was to come. To solidify the point we will take the following points:
- The word for virgin in v.14 is ‘almah’ which is translated from the Hebrew virgin. All throughout the Old Testament is means a young unmarried girl. It is cannot refer to someone who could conceive a child in a natural way (via intercourse).
- We find in the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek Old Testament word ‘almah’ was translated to ‘parthenos,’ which would indicate that the scribes translating the word 200 years b.c. understood this passage as a prophecy of the Messiah that was to be fulfilled by a virgin birth. This is further corroborated when spoken of in the New Testament about Christ’s virgin birth (Matt 1.23) the word ‘parthenos’ was used.
- It stands to reason that the virgin spoken of in Isaiah 7.14 was a future prophecy about the Messiah, not only because He is named in Isaiah 9.6 as God, but because Isaiah’s wife (the prophetess who bore the child in Chapter 8) was not a virgin when she conceived or bore the child.
- This prophecy is not limited by the onetime occurrence as its true fulfillment was in Christ, the coming of God to the earth. This would not have been fulfilled in Isaiah’s son, but again was an arch-type, or foreshadow. It also stands to reason that giving birth to a son through natural means is not really any type of miraculous sign. The emphasis was on something unheard of (Isaiah 7.11-14), not a regular conception and birth.
Jesus’ performance of miracles during His time on Earth fulfilled multiple purposes. The reason for the performance of these miraculous works are contained in the definition of the Greek words used to describe them.
Miracles were to be a ‘Sign,’ the Greek word ‘semeion.’ A sign was to be a signal to the people so they could recognize the meaning or purpose of something. Miracles were a sign that something was being done supernaturally and that it was from God, and to signify God’s authority and approval. When Jesus was challenged, this was the word He used when He said that this generation asks for a ‘sign’ but none would be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah (Matt 12.39).
Miracles were to be a ‘Wonder,’ the Greek word ‘teras.’ Usually this word is used in conjunction with the word sign. Teras can also mean miraculous sign, portent, omen, wonder, etc. Referring to something that makes a person stand in awe or in astonishment, in an expression of something they have never seen or that is supernatural.
Miracles were to be ‘Power,’ the Greek word ‘dunamis.’ Miracles displayed he power of God to operate outside of natural means. Dunamis does occasionally refer to natural or human power, and Satanic power as well in the New Testament. It is the word used to demonstrate the supernatural power of an event.
Miracles Confirmed Jesus Ministry
The Bible teaches us that God confirmed Jesus ministry and authority through supernatural, miraculous signs and wonders. People followed Jesus because of the miraculous works He did. His disciples put their faith in Him as He displayed the first miraculous works.
What Jesus did here in Cana of Galilee was the first of the signs through which he revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him. – John 2.11
But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name – John 20.30-31
Nicodemus came to Jesus by night and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do unless God is with him – John 3.2
And a great multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he did on them that were diseased. – John 6.2
Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know – Acts 2.22
It was declared at first by the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard, while God also bore witness by signs and wonders and various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will. – Hebrews 2.3-4
List of Jesus Miracles
|Jesus Heals a Mute Man||9: 32-34||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Deaf and Dumb Man||n/a||7:31-37||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Crippled Woman’s Spine||n/a||n/a||13:10-17||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Lame Man at Bethesda pool||n/a||n/a||n/a||5:1-15||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Paralytic Man||9: 1-8||2:1-12||5:17-26||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Man’s Withered Hand||12:9-14||3:1-6||6: 6-11||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Blind, Mute Demoniac||12: 22-23||n/a||11:14-23||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Casts Out Demons and Heals Many Sick at Evening||8:16-17||1: 32-34||4:40-41||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Man Born Blind||n/a||n/a||n/a||9: 1-41||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Blind Man at Bethsaida||n/a||8:22-26||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals Two Blind Men||9:27-31||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals Two More Blind Men||20: 29-34||10:46-52||18: 35-43||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals Ten Lepers||n/a||n/a||17:11-19||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Man With Leprosy||8: 1-4||1 :40-45||5:12-14||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Man With Dropsy on the Sabbath||n/a||n/a||14: 1-6||n/a||n/a|
|Restored the ear cut off the servant of the High Priest||n/a||n/a||22.49-51||n/a||n/a|
|Illnesses / Injuries Healed||Matthew||Mark||Luke||John||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Woman with Issue of Blood||9:20-22||5:25-34||8:43-48||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Servant’s Severed Ear||n/a||n/a||22:50-51||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals Peter’s Mother-in-Law||8:14-15||1:29-31||4:38-39||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Centurion’s Servant||8:5-13||n/a||7:1-10||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals an Official’s Son Remotely||n/a||n/a||n/a||4:46-54||n/a|
|Jesus Heals Many Sick in Gennesaret||14:34-36||6:53-56||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Evil Spirits Removed||Matthew||Mark||Luke||John||n/a|
|Jesus Delivers a Gentile Woman’s Demon Possessed Daughter||15:21-28||7: 24-30||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Heals a Boy with a Demon||17:14-20||9: 14-29||9: 37-43||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Delivers a Demon-Possessed Man||n/a||1:21-28||4:31-37||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Delivers a Demon-Possessed Man Cast into Pigs||8: 28-34||5:1-20||8: 26-39||n/a||n/a|
|The Dead Raised to Life||Matthew||Mark||Luke||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Raises a Widow’s Son in Nain||n/a||n/a||7:11-17||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Raises Lazarus from the Dead||n/a||n/a||n/a||11: 1-45||n/a|
|Jesus Raises Jairus’ Daughter to Life||9: 18-26||5:21-43||8:40-56||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus was resurrected||28||16.1-8||24||20||n/a|
|Passed through angry mob||n/a||n/a||4.3||n/a||n/a|
|Temple Tax Placed in a Fish’s Mouth||17:24-27||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Walks on Water||14:22-33||6:45-52||n/a||6:16-21||n/a|
|Jesus Turns Water into Wine||n/a||n/a||n/a||2:1-11||n/a|
|First Miraculous Catch of Fish||n/a||n/a||5:1-11||n/a||n/a|
|Second Miraculous Catch of Fish||n/a||n/a||n/a||21:1-14||n/a|
|Jesus Feeds 5000 with 5 Loaves & 2 Fish||14: 13-21||6:30-44||9:10-17||6:1-15||n/a|
|Jesus Feeds 4000 with 7 Loaves & few Fish||15:32-39||8:1-13||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Causes a Fig Tree to Wither||21:18:22||11:12-14||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Jesus Calms a Storm||8:23-27||4:35-41||8:22-25||n/a||n/a|
|Angel rolls the stone from the grave||28.1-8||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a|
|Angel appears at the sepulcher||28.2-7||16.4-7||24.4-9||n/a||n/a|
|Angel appears to Mary Magdalene and the Women||28.8-10||16.9||20.11-18||n/a||n/a|
|Appeared on the road to Emmaus after the resurrection||n/a||16.12-13||24.13-35||n/a||n/a|
|Appeared to 10 apostles||n/a||n/a||n/a||20.19-23||n/a|
|Appeared to 11 apostles||n/a||16.14-18||24.36-38||20.26-31||n/a|
|Appeared to 7 apostles||n/a||n/a||n/a||21.1-25||n/a|
|Appeared to all apostles||28.16-20||16.14-18||24.44-53||n/a||Acts 1.3-8|
|Appeared to Peter and the apostles||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||1 Corin 15.5|
|Appeared to 500+ people||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||1 Corin 15.6|
|Appeared to James||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||1 Corin 15.7|
|Appeared to Paul on the road to Damascus||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||Acts 9|
|Ascended into heaven||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||Acts 1.9-11|
One of the most fundamental facts of the Christian faith is Jesus’ resurrection from the dead. This was to fulfillment the work of the Redeemer of humanity and the completion of His work is the overcoming and destruction of death.
Humanity no longer needs to fear sin or death as it no longer has a hold on those who put their faith in Christ. The curse of death has been overcome by the Savior of humanity.
Now since the children have flesh and blood, He too shared in their humanity, so that by His death He might destroy him who holds the power of death, that is, the devil, and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by their fear of death. – Hebrews 2.14-15
References to His resurrection are stated in the New Testament (john 20.9, 1 Corin 15.4) that refer back to the prophecy in the Old Testament (Isa 53.10-12, Ps 16.10, Jonah 1.17, Hos 6.2).
Was Christ the Messenger of Yahweh in the Old Testament?
One of the interesting studies on the appearance of Christ in the Old Testament and Preincarnate Sonship and deity is His appearance as the Angel (Messenger) of the LORD. We find a strong correlation through the following verses:
The Angel (Messenger) of Yahweh is Yahweh
There are hints throughout the Old Testament that portray a very interesting study connecting Yahweh to the Angel of the Lord, as being God yet a distinctly different person. In the same way we see Jesus and the Father as God but are distinctly different persons.
The name Yahweh is translated LORD in the Old Testament but it is the name of God. God proclaims this to be His divine name;
For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else. – Isaiah 45.18
And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD: and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name YHWH was I not known to them. – Exodus 6.2-3
When Moses experienced the burning bush in Exodus 3, the Bible tells us in verse 2 that the ‘Angel (messenger) of the LORD’ appeared to him. In verse 6 He calls Himself the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Again in verse 14 He proclaims that He is the great I AM.
Abraham encountered the LORD in Genesis 18 when he saw 3 men standing by the giant trees of Mamre. It says that the LORD appeared before Abraham in verse 1 along with two other men (who where the angels that went on into Sodom). When the other two angels left to go to Sodom, it says Abraham was left standing before the Lord as the Lord spoke to him.
In Judges 13.9 the ‘angel of the LORD’ appeared to Manoah and spoke to them about their son. When the angel of the Lord departed they became sore afraid in verse 22 because they said we have seen God. This messenger or angel of the Lord even referenced his name as being ‘Wonderful,’ the name given to the coming Christ in Isa 9.6.
In Joshua 5.13-14 we see the interaction between Joshua and the ‘Commander of the armies of the Lord,’ and Joshua fell down in reverence and asked what message the Lord has for his servant.
We see conversations between the Angel of the Lord and the Lord Almighty in heaven among various verses:
Then the angel of the Lord said, “Lord Almighty, how long will you withhold mercy from Jerusalem and from the towns of Judah, which you have been angry with these seventy years?” 13 So the Lord spoke kind and comforting words to the angel who talked with me. – Zechariah 1.12-13
Jesus alluded to this same kind of conversation (Matt 22.42) that occurred between the Father and the Son
The Lord says to my lord: “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.” – Psalms 110.1, Ps 45.6, Heb 1.8
Isaiah records a praise that mentions each person of the Godhead in Chapter 63, speaking of Gods plan to save Israel and be their Savior. It specifically states in verse 9 that the Angel of His presence saved them.
I will tell of the kindnesses of the Lord, the deeds for which he is to be praised, according to all the Lord has done for us— yes, the many good things he has done for Israel, according to his compassion and many kindnesses. 8 He said, “Surely they are my people, children who will be true to me”; and so he became their Savior.
9 In all their distress he too was distressed, and the angel of his presence saved them. In his love and mercy he redeemed them; he lifted them up and carried them all the days of old. 10 Yet they rebelled and grieved his Holy Spirit. So he turned and became their enemy and he himself fought against them. – Isaiah 63.7-10
Criticism of Specific Christology Doctrines
Christ cannot be God because He was not always omniscient
The Bible tells us that the Son does not know the time that the Father has set aside, in reference to the day and hour of the end of time, that only the Father knows. Mark 13.32.
Again this statement comes as a result of not taking into account Gods ability to limit His own potential. In the same way that God is infinitely powerful but does not exercise all His works this way all the time. The Son choosing not to know this information is a simple matter.
A second explanation given for this verse is that at the time Jesus was limiting his knowledge while in the form of a man on earth, and once He was restored to His former glory when He ascended into heaven and filled all He again knew everything in omniscience (Eph 4.10).
Jesus said the Father is Greater than I
Another denotation of the limitations the Son took upon himself to incarnate on the earth. This can also be explained in the order of the Father being head over the Son.
Normal L. Geisler – Systematic Theology in One Volume. Bethany House Minneapolis MN. 2002-2011; Appendix 1 – Christology p.1497