What are the Boundaries of Reality
Table of Contents
Overview – Boundaries of Reality
Mankind has studied to understand our universe since the great philosophers of old, creating a basis for some of our understanding of classical physics. It has not been until recently with the advent of modern technologies that we have been able to understand that classical mechanics cannot explain the entire phenomenon we experience in the universe.
Over the past few centuries, and as we have been able to peer into the quantum realm, we have found that one set of physical laws do not explain everything we see, since the particles in the quantum micro verse behave very differently then what we observe on a larger scale. The objects that behave according to classical mechanics.
As we expand out knowledge, through various experiments and observations, we are able to determine the limits or boundaries of our own reality. Science examines the extreme conditions of various metrics in our observable universe and are able to determine the limitations of each quantitative metric found in each scientific field.
As we examine each of the limitations of our reality, we will see that the known laws of physics, like classical mechanics, that holds our reality together begins to bend and even change as we get closer to the boundaries of our own reality. And we peer beyond the boundaries of reality in this universe; we can see that the classical laws that make up our own world become very different as we peer far beyond the worlds that lie at the boundaries of our reality.
Hyper Space and Macro Size Limitations
Macro verse- Observable Universe Expansion into Hyperspace
Since 1912 and the discovery of the red shift phenomenon by Vesto Slipher, scientists have learned that the galaxies are moving away from each other indicating that our universe is expanding.
Examples of what this looks like have been given by imagining a balloon expanding outwards into the air around it. If you live on the balloon, the laws of relativity indicate going in a straight line you would eventually come back to where you started; here you have the curvature of space. However, the balloons (universes) boundaries of reality are expanding outward into hyperspace, or a higher/alternative dimension of space.
The limits of our observable universe points to the fact that we have an upper limit to how large something can be. The size of the current observable universe is 93B Lyrs., and continues to increase as it continues to expand as many physicists speculate into an unseen higher spatial dimension or hyperspace.
These extra , higher, hyper or super dimensions of space give us a glimpse of a higher plane that exists outside of our own universe. A plane of space that is much larger then our own universe or is able to contain the universe as it expands.
Micro verse – Quantum Mechanics
Infinite Divisibility and the Planck Length
Based on our understanding in everyday life, we assume that we can take any object and it would be infinitely divisible. If we cut an object in half and continued doing so, we would be able to continue dividing it forever into smaller portions. This is not necessarily the case however.
Max Planck, a German Physicist that discovered quantum mechanics, defined what is known as the Planck length. This is the smallest length, or the minimal length that an object can be observed in our physical universe. Something on the order of 1.6 x 10 ^-35 m in SI units. That’s 10 ^-20 the size of a proton. It is beyond this length that light, gravity and mass all lose the ability to fundamentally break down any further.
Classical physics could not explain what we observe in the quantum realm, so a new classification of physics had to be created, called quantum mechanics. This contradicted the idea that everything in the physical universe has to operate one way. If this is the case for what we can observe in our universe on such a small scale, what about the active properties for alternative/ hyper dimensional mechanics that we have yet to encounter?
At this scale particles behave very differently than physical material we encounter in our daily lives that work based on classical principles. Constituents in the quantum realm are able to perform both as particles of matter or electromagnetic waves depending on circumstances.
A particle has a probability of having either momentum or locality, and the closer you get to measuring one attribute the more obscure the other becomes. Quantum particles also seem to have the ability to appear in more than one place at a time.
Curled up hyper dimensions
Those that follow string theory know that Calabi-Yau manifolds or Calabi-Yau spaces are conjectured to take the form of a 6-dimensional plane leading to the idea of mirror symmetry. The name was devised after Eugenio Calabi who first conjectured the existence of such structures, and Shing-Tung who proved the Calab Conjecture. It is postulated that an object that is divided beyond the Planck length will begin to curl up into one of these six dimensions and loose locality in our three-dimensional space.
These extra dimensions or hyper dimensions are just additional positions in our universe we only get a glimpse of via indirect measurements and experiments, to see the boundaries of reality.
Waves or Particles and Observations
Another property that is observed in the quantum realm is what seems to be the need for a conscious observer, and the effect of that observation on the results of a particle’s behavior. In the double slit experiment, a photon wave interacts with a photographic plate. It is not until a measurement or observation is made that the wave collapses into a defined state, either a particle or wave.
If multiple photons are sent through the double slit, as each wave collapses into defined states it gives a wave interference pattern on the screen. What is interesting is the dependence on whether an observation is being made or not. Before a measurement or observation occurs, there is no way to determine where it will land. This is another attribute about quantum mechanics that when paralleled with classical mechanics, that acts very differently from one another.
Extreme Colds – Super fluids, Superconductors
Bose-Einstein condensate occurs when something reaches a near absolute 0 Kelvin temperature. We have not achieved it yet but liquid helium (the only chemical element in the universe that theoretically needs near 0 Kelvin to become a solid). When it gets close to that temp, the liquid loses viscosity and can oppose gravitational direction, spilling out of its container. This opposes the physical laws of fluids. This is yet another boundary of our reality that we can explore with these extreme temperatures.
Stopping and Storing Light
Lene Vestergaard Hau (born 1959) a Danish physicist and educator experimented with critical temperatures in super cold gases and was able to slow down, and even stop photons of light, and restart it or store it for later reconstitution.
Superconductors are materials that are super cooled to critical temperatures. The material will begin to lose its electrical resistance and magnetic flux fields are repelled in the material. Additionally, an electric current can persist through such a material indefinitely. This allows materials to levitate and even quantum lock in a leviative position.
Extreme or Maximum Heat
According to Planck calculations, the hottest temperature possible in our universe is 142 nonillion (1.42 x 10 ^32) Kelvin, or the point in which molecular motion could not produce more heat. It is theorized that going above this temperature, the fundamental forces of the universe would equalize (strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromagnetic and gravity) or become unified, breaking down our known models of the universe.
Other Boundaries of Reality
There are many other theories about what happens when we penetrate the boundaries of our known universe or laws of physics. Hawking Radiation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principles, exceeding the speed of light, etc. As technology advances and we continue to be able to peer outside the natural laws and world, we can glimpse the hyper spatial or super-natural foundations that hold our universe together. All of which point to the creator that set each system upon one another.